Before diving into the level of primary needs a broader definition of Maslow's hierarchy of needs must be given. The five levels of this model are all different motivations of human needs. People need to satisfy the lower needs first and will then naturally progress on to a higher level. The pyramid starts with 'primary needs' and moves sequentially towards 'safety & security', 'belonging', 'status & self-esteem' and 'self-actualisation'. The lowest level, 'primary needs', is about the physical needs of human beings, such as food, water, sleep and warmth.
Consumers' level of needs changed significantly since COVID-19 and this created immediate effects. In threatening situations like this, people have a natural tendency to stockpile to meet their primary needs. This resulted in bulk purchasing - toilet paper and hand sanitiser became the scarcest items worldwide.